A mindset is an underlying belief that someone has about learning and intelligence (Dweck, 2017). Those with a growth mindset believe that they can get smarter, and effort will make them stronger. “Those who believe their abilities are malleable are more likely to embrace challenges and persist despite failure” (Dweck, 2017).
Instructors play an important role in encouraging students to pursue a growth mindset. Feedback on assignments and assessments should provide constructive advice, instead of praise for intelligence (Dweck & Mueller, 2017). Praising for effort and process makes students more likely to pursue challenging tasks. The focus should be on “strategy-oriented” (versus “comfort-oriented”) feedback (Rattan et al., 2012).